The species of special interest are those birds which are either; Only recorded for Tanzania at Minziro many of which are G-C biome-restricted. Birds which where ringed in greater, or lesser numbers than expected and re-traps from 1987. Were recorded by observation in numbers greater or less than expected, or other notable behaviour. The numbers shown proceeding the name (#,#) refer to the Tanzanian checklist number (Tz, No), followed by the Britton number (Bno).
Francolinus lathami, Forest Francolin
recorded for Tanzania in 1987, this species has since been recorded at Minziro
by Baker & Baker (1994) and Moyer (1999). Several sightings were made
between 100m and 200m into the forest, the largest group being five individuals.
A single adult male was caught and ringed (H2611), weight; 322gm, wing; 161mm,
bill; 22.2, tar; 47.8mm, tail; 61mm.
Cercococcyx mechowi, Dusky long-tailed
First recorded for Tanzania in 1993 (Baker & Baker, 1994), this species has since been recorded by Moyer (1998) who noted up to five individuals calling at the same time in October. In August 2000, this species was recorded on call by L.McBride.
Alcedo leucogaster, White-bellied
recorded for Tanzania in July1987 when 20 birds were ringed of which 7 were
immature (Baker, 1987 unpublished).
Moyer (1998) recorded this bird in October, but it was not observed in November
1993 and August 2000. The distribution of this race; leopoldi
; Congo Basin to Western Uganda and NW Tanzania at Minziro. Fry et
al (1988) states that this species is thought to be sedentary, however its
absence during these months could suggest otherwise.
Alcedo quadribrachys, Shining
recorded for Tanzania in 1987 when a single bird was ringed. This individual was
thought to represent a wanderer from the Kagera Valley in Rwanda where it is
known to occur (Britton, 1980). This species has not been recorded from
Malabigambo, in adjacent Uganda, nor has it been recorded in Minziro since 1987.
Ceyx picta, Pygmy Kingfisher
intra-African migrant, the east African race natalensis
breeds south of 10ºS from September to April, migrating north ‘wintering’
to NE Zaire, S Sudan and West Uganda (Keith et
al, 1988). During the period 27.7.00 – 2.8.00 14 adult birds were ringed
of which 2 were in the last stages moult. A majority of the birds caught were in
fresh plumage. The high numbers of this intra-African migrant would indicate
that Minziro is an important wintering habitat for this species. Recent studies
have indicated that long distance migrants have a high fidelity to their
non-breeding destination. This would go some way to outlining the importance of
Minziro as a wintering habitat to this and other intra-African migrants (Oatley,
T pers comm).
First record for Tanzania
xantholophus, Yellow-crested Woodpecker
recorded for Tanzania on 23.07.00 feeding 30m above the ground on the underside
of a dead branch. Several observations were then made by different individuals
over a period of two weeks. Its characteristic ‘high speed’ drumming was
recorded daily and indicated at least 2 individuals were in the immediate area.
On one occasion an individual was observed at the forest edge for 5 minutes
drumming and feeding. This species was recorded in the Sango Bay Forests by
Friedmann & Williams (1969) and Matthews (Davenport & Howard, 1996),
therefore its occurrence at Minziro is not surprising. The fact that this
species was not recorded at this locality in July 1987 but was common
July-August 2000 would suggest movement, possibly rainfall related, this being a
IUCN Vulnerable Hirundo atrocaerulea,
intra-African migrant, this species leaves its breeding areas in upland
grassland to winter in lowland areas such as Minziro and Ruma National Park in
western Kenya. It is not known if these birds, wintering in Minziro are from
south Africa or the southern highlands of Tanzania. However, it is more likely
that these birds breed in the Iringa highlands, Kipengere range or Kitulo
Plateau. What is known is that its breeding areas at Kitulo plateau and in areas
of the Iringa Highlands are threatened by cultivation. Surveys were carried out
in Ruma national Park during 1996 and 1997 (Nasirwa & Njoroge) and no birds
were recorded. This park has however become fragmented and may no longer be a
viable wintering ground for this species. In Minziro (1987) <20 individuals
were recorded in 3 weeks; in Minziro (August 2000) four birds were recorded.
Although these are low numbers, this would indicate that the grassland in and
around Minziro Forest Reserve represents an important habitat for this declining
species. At present, Blue Swallow is listed as vulnerable (Collar et al, 1994), although it is likely to be upgraded this year to
endangered due to the continued destruction of both its breeding and wintering
Andropadus virens, Little Greenbul
The most widespread forest Greenbul in Africa, this species occurs from extreme west Africa to the east African coast at Dar-es-Salaam (Keith et al, 1992). In total 7 birds were ringed, One re-trap first ringed as an adult in 1987 (J187930) indicating that this individual has a life span of at least 14 years. The previous longevity record for this species is 7 years 9 months (Mann, 1985). In addition this would confirm current opinion that this species is mainly sedentary.
Andropadus curvirostris, Cameroon
A predominately west African species, occurring in west and central Ugandan forests, Kakamaga, Nandi and Mt. Elgon in Kenya. Known only from Minziro in Tanzania. A total of 10 adult birds were ringed.
Andropadus gracilis, Little-grey
recorded in Minziro by Moyer (1998), this is a bird of the west African forest
belt, with populations in Uganda and a disjunct population in western Kenya at
Kakamega (Keith et al, 1992). Several
of this species in the canopy and identifications confirmed on call by L.McBride.
First record for Tanzania
baumanni, Toro Olive Greenbul
recorded for Tanzania on 27.07.00. Single adult male caught and ringed (A96226);
weight; 24gm, wing; 80mm, bill; 18.2mm, tar; 22.7, tail; 81.5mm. The bird was at
the end of its moult; RW PP 1-8=new, 9=4,10=old. SS 1-6=new. TT 1-3=new. Several
parties were observed in a single area and sound recordings made by L.McBride.
This species was not observed or heard at other areas of Minziro Forest (other
than the ringing site) over the following month, although efforts were made to
find it (McBride pers comm).
Phyllastrephus icterinus, Icterine
predominantly west African species, it was first recorded for Tanzania at
Minziro in 1987. In total 7 adult birds were ringed. Observations were limited
as it is difficult to distinguish this bird in the field from P.xavieri
however mixed parties were observed in the mid-strata.
Phyllastrephus xavieri, Xavier’s
A predominately west African species, in Tanzania, only recorded from Minziro. 9 adult birds were ringed. Mixed parties of xavieri and icterinus were observed in the mid-strata.
Bleda notata, Yellow-lored
Bristlebill (Green-tailed Bristlebill)
bird of west, central Africa, W and S Uganda, in Tanzania only at Minziro (Keith
et al , 1992).Recently split from B.eximia (Green-tailed Bristlebill) by Chappuis and Erarad, (1993).
In total 12 birds were ringed, of which 2 were re-traps from 1987, (A 35188, A
40760). Both re-captures were Adult birds caught at the same location indicating
sedentary behaviour and a life-span of at least 14 years. Previous longevity
record for this species was recorded as 10 years (Keith et
Neocossyphus rufus, Red-tailed Ant
race occurs in forest and moist woodland, from coastal lowlands to 900m. In
Tanzania, recorded in Pugu, Ulugurus, East Usambaras. Single record October 1998
(Moyer). Not recorded in Sango-Bay Forests, Uganda, although may occur.
Stizorhina fraseri, Rufous Thrush (Rufous-Flycatcher
A bird of west-central Africa, S.Nigeria to Minziro in NW Tanzania (Keith et al,1992). Two adult birds were caught of which one was a re-trap from 1987 (A40781). The re-trap was ringed as an adult at the same location in 1987. This would indicate sedentary behaviour and a life-span of at least 14 years. Previous recorded longevity is 8 years (Keith et al, 1992).
(615,734) Alethe diademata, Fire-crested Alethe
33 individuals were ringed of which 16 were immature and 17 were adult birds. This ratio of adults to immature birds would indicate a successful breeding season. Of the 17 adult birds processed, 12 were in moult indicating the end of the breeding season in this area. A single re-capture from 1987 indicates the known life-span of this species to be at least 13 years. The previous known longevity for this species was 8 years (Keith et al, 1992).
(812,675) Illadopsis fulvescens, Brown Illadopsis
The race ugandae is found in CAR, Congo (now Zaire), S Sudan, Kenya and Western Tanzania (Mackworth-Praed & Grant, 1973), it is predominately a bird of dense forest undergrowth. Six adults and one immature bird were caught of which one was a 1987 re-trap (J187955). The longevity of this species is unknown, but the re-trap suggests at least 14 years. As with other retraps from 1987 this indicates not only longevity in tropical forest avifauna but sedentary behaviour as well.
mufumbiri, Papyrus Gonolek
Endemic to Papyrus swamps from 1100m – 1600m along the north shore of Lake Victoria and swamps in western Kenya and Uganda (Britton, 1980). No birds were recorded in August 2000, however this species was recorded in 1987 near Kagera Sugar factory. It is likely to occur in low numbers along the river in Minziro FR. It is important to note that following the de-gazettment of 66% of Kagera national park in Rwanda, the papyrus on which this bird depends is unprotected over much of the Kagera eco-system.
Other Taxa recorded
Taxonomic order and nomenclature follow
polykomos, Western Pied Colobus
race; adolphi-frederici (Kagera
Valley), montane and lowland forest (Kingdon, 1997). Groups of 4 to 8 were
recorded in different areas in the western part of the forest reserve.
twice at the ringing site in groups of 2-5. Once on the road just south of
race Schmidti (Uganda and western
Kenya) Recorded daily.
to Tanzania (badius in central
Tanzania). Recorded daily, calling at 19.30 onwards.
spp, (One of 10 species known)
Individual caught in the net late evening.
once on the forest edge.
spp, ( One of 9 species
individuals caught in mist nets in both the grassland and forest edge.
spp, ( One of 9 species known)
individual caught in the bottom rung of the mist net inside the forest.
Measurements taken; Length: 130mm, Tail: 100cm, Weight: 44gm.
Western Tree Hyrax
vocal at varying times of night within forest.
twice inside the forest during the middle of the day and once on the forest edge
at sunset. Alarm call heard regularly.
sp, Duiker sp
single sighting which was believed to be callipygus,
Peter’s Duiker due to large size and colouring.