PROJECT: REDUCING BIODIVERSITY LOSS AT CROSSBORDER SITES IN EAST AFRICA.
UNDP/GEF East African Cross-Border Biodiversity Project, “Reducing
Biodiversity Loss at Crossborder sites in East Africa” is an Integrated
Conservation and Development Project (ICDP), developed and implemented through a
participatory and collaborative effort by the three sister countries of Kenya,
Tanzania and Uganda. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
and undertakes activities aimed at Reducing Biodiversity Loss at Cross-Border
sites in selected districts. It addresses the root causes of biodiversity loss
at decentralized and community level while at the same time influencing National
and Regional processes for biodiversity conservation. The project is innovative
and complex with entry points at regional, national, district and community
project is facilitating the mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations into
cross-sectoral development planning and decision-making systems at local,
district and national levels. The project aims to achieve the following 7
Local Agencies at local key sites promoting sustainable use of
Local communities at key sites participating in resource conservation.
Effective and compatible policy and legal frameworks in place at key
Conservation issues are effectively addressed.
biodiversity management plans implemented at sites.
Alternative resources use/management strategies adopted at key sites
Alternative income generation practices adopted at key sites.
project beneficiary groups include national governments, districts, government
agencies, grassroots communities including the poor and women and the
international community with an interest in biodiversity
The project is being
implemented at three levels:
At the ecosystem level in the target districts where the project forest
sites are located. For example in the Sango Bay – Minziro forest/wetland
ecosystem and its surrounding environment.
At the National level; by the Government institutions that have expertise
for capacity building, training, biological inventories, coordination and policy
harmonisation for the natural resources management sector, and,
At the Regional level; harmonising national policies,
networking, training, and resource valuation issues.
The basic strategy of the project is
to provide a broad-based integrated package of support to the government and
non-government agencies dealing with biodiversity. The project activities being
implemented are therefore, where necessary, contracted to other appropriate
organisations such as NGOs.
Project Document stresses the need to undertake activities through partnerships
with other organisations on the basis of technical capacity, a proven track
record to ensure sustainability of activities at district and field levels. This
is seen as an innovative mechanism seeking both technical competence and local
level capacity building. The approach of the project is therefore to build
partnerships, mechanisms and capacities within existing institutions. No new
institutions are to be created, instead existing institutions are being
partnerships are with existing initiatives/institutions with similar
conservation objectives. This is cost effective, ensures sustainability and
increases ownership. The partners are natural resource management agencies such
as the Forest Departments, local District Councils, and NGOs (e.g Integrated
Rural Development Initiatives (IRDI) in Uganda; East African Wildlife Society in
Kenya and TAF in Tanzania.),
partners include Training Institutions such as Makerere University Institute of
Environment and Natural Resources and Faculty of Forestry and Nature
Conservation; Mweka College of African Wildlife Management etc.
at Regional level include ACTS and IUCN EARO, who work with the project in
detailed policy review processes. WWF and CARE are partnering training
programmes for ICDP activity in the region.
is an integrated conservation and development project which seeks to achieve the
objectives of biodiversity conservation while at the same time contributing to
development aspirations of the local communities adjacent to the target forest
ecosystems. However many of the existing institutions, especially the more
development minded NGOs did not clearly understand the linkage between
Conservation and Development. While the natural resource management agencies
focused on conservation, the NGOs focused on development. It was therefore very
important to develop a clear vision on conservation and development with all the
The need for a clear
Conservation and Development (C&D) linkages was demonstrated during an
International Monitoring and Evaluation consultancy that began in March, 1999.
It was considered prudent that for a project which aims at working through
partnerships, it would be imperative for all potential and actual partners to
have a common vision of project objectives and activities. Consequently, the key
Government agencies and NGO partners at project sites have been involved in a
participatory planning process to develop site based plans upon which contracts
have been designed for their participation in project implementation.
project started building partnership by awareness raising meetings and workshops
at various levels on site. These include District, NGO, and village meetings.
The awareness activity was aimed at building a common vision between the
project, local stakeholders and potential partners so as to optimise possible
input to the project (see reports by consultant Worah on Building Common
Visions). Successful project activities require such an enhanced awareness and
increased commitment to put in place a better environment to implement planned
partnership principle, and specific partnerships have been endorsed by the
regional, national and district levels through the linkages created by such
awareness raising. Such partnerships fill specific identified technical needs,
within the fields of Alternative Resource Use Technologies such as Nurseries and
Energy Saving; ie reducing demand on natural forests for fuelwood, (see Output
B2); and developing Alternative Income Strategies (see Output B3)
Case Studies on Partnerships: The Ugandan
Conservation and Development Initiatives (IRDI).
is one of the NGOs implementing project activities around Sango Bay.
IRDI is helping local communities to construct improved cook-stoves,
establish tree nurseries, tree planting, improve income generation and practice
better agricultural methods. This NGO was involved in the participatory planning
process for Sango Bay forest, as an NGO partner, to develop the site plan
together with the local community.
discussions regarding what IRDI would contribute to the plan were therefore
relatively easy as IRDI was part of the team that co-ordinated the problem
analysis, setting objectives, designing the implementation plan and the M&E
framework for Sango Bay forest. IRDI is working with the local community at the
household level and there is evidence that constructed improved cook-stoves are
using far less firewood than before. It is also apparent that banana gardens of
the households involved in better agricultural methods are yielding much more
food than before. It is anticipated
that the provision of these alternatives should reduce pressure on the forest.
IRDI is contributing to strengthening of extension services around Sango
Bay forest. All the NGOs working with the project are required to build capacity
in a local NGO or CBOs for sustainability.
Agroforestry project was closely involved in the participatory planning process
for Sango Bay. VI-Agroforestry attached an officer to the team that led the
planning process that involved holding meetings with the local community in all
the villages to analyse values and threats to the Sango Bay ecosystem. VI-Agroforestry
Project was part of the team that actively guided the process of problem
analysis, setting objectives, implementation plan and M&E framework for
Sango Bay. These were done in series of workshops with stakeholders including
the local communities at the sites.
Agroforestry project has been contracted under the project and is undertaking
activities similar to those of IRDI but in a different subcounty around SangoBay.
It was relatively easy to design a contract for VI because they had been
involved in the planning process and understood the objectives of the project.
The NGO has offered their staff and some of their equipment in form of
leveraging towards implementation of activities.
NGO is helping households in Kabira, one of the target sub-counties, to practice
Agroforestry, better agricultural methods and construct improved cook-stoves.
The parner NGOs are required to create impact at household level.
Care and Relief (ICR).
Care and Relief (ICR) has been contracted to undertake Environmental Education
programme in selected schools around Sango Bay. ICR has been involved in
Environmental Education programmes for over two years and has established a
linkage between schools and the adjacent communities. ICR was part of the team
that guided the participatory planning process.
Services International (SVI).
is an NGO that has had development activities around Mt. Kadam for the last 15
years mainly in the agriculture sector. SVI actively participated in common
vision building workshops withn the project. Consequently, SVI was contracetd to
coordinate a Value and Threat analysis exercise around Mt. Kadam. The NGO worked
closely with the prject team to develop the site plan for Mt. Kadam forest. SVI
has now been contracted to undertake the implementaion of msotlynthe development
activities around Mt. Kadam but in collaboration with the natural resource
management agencies especiall the Forest Department. It is evident that SVI is
well aware of the linkage betwwen Conservation and Development.
major training partner institutions are MUIENR and FFNC who are training the key
staff of the natural resource management agencies and NGOs. These activities are
just beginning, it is premature to capture experiences
in Energy issues
of the major threats that impact biodiversity conservation that was identified
at all target sites is the collection of fuelwood from forests for cooking,
heating and lighting. The project
has managed to develop partnerships with several institutions including the
private sector, which had already started activities on both the efficient use
of fuelwood, and finding alternatives to existing fuelwood use.
These institutions were working outside our target areas, but with
project intervention are now working at target sites. Key linkages are:
- Tanzania Association of Foresters
were using a technology on use of "Plastic Biodigesters" (biogas
plants) which cost in materials some US$150. Digesters use cattle dung for gas
production. The project linked with TAF, which then provided for expertise to
support this activity in Monduli district.
The TAF experts trained local village experts and produced a Swahili
newsletter and a guide to the construction, use and benefit of using
biodigesters. The activity is
spearheaded by TAF in Monduli districts and is gaining popularity.
The Project will soon hand fully activity to TAF and District authorities
for sustainability. The same technology will be introduced by TAF to Same and
other relevant project sites.
(Kampuni ya kuendeleza technologia –Technology Development)
This is a small but growing company which has linked with existing NGOs
to introduce a wild oil plant Jatropha
curcas. The partnership started
between our project and KAKUTE in Monduli District. The partnership has now grown by including the International
Heifer Project, the USA based MacNight Foundation and FAIDA (a local NGO). This
is a one year initial partnership with funds drawn from the key partners.
This initiative has had a positive response from Monduli district as Jatropha
is a green broad leaved drought resistant plant, sometimes locally grown
plant in graveyards. It is a plant that can be used for fencing, it is not eaten
by animals (therefore appropriate for pastoral communities) and has other values
linked to local needs as alternative energy for fuel oil and alternative income
for local soap manufacturing. It is this alternative energy source which
provides potential benefit to our project.
There are a number of documents and articles already produced on this
initiative and it is one of the key partnership with private sector, local ad
international NGOs with a strong district and community support and benefit.
(Centre for Agriculture Resource Management Technology)
Several initiatives have started with CARMATEC:
of a concrete Biogas plant
This is a high pressure and a more expensive plant compared to that of
TAF – Plastic Biodigester. The
cost of material cost is some six times more expensive (about US$700) but has a
higher yield of gas, with less risk of possible damage. The initiative has been
introduced in Monduli and Longido villages and has gained demand from those
better-off villagers and rural workers. The project in collaboration with
CARMATEC will soon produce a Biogas Plant guidebook in Swahili.
This initiative had been existing but had not been introduced at our
project sites. The introduced
prototypes are costed at some 150US$ in production cost and can produce more
than 1000 watts. The technology has just been introduced in Monduli and has
indication of gaining increased requests very soon. CARMATEC had initiated this
activity but due to inadequate self financing initiative, the technology did not
The project is initiating this as an alternative energy suitable for
villagers and the demonstrations will prove the capital expenditure outlay, and
(Same Mwanga Environment Conservation Association Office)
This is a local NGO working in Same and Mwanga Districts.
The project has linked with this NGO and managed to enhance the
introduction of efficient local earth stoves in villages surroundings the forest
reserve. The labour cost of moulding one simple improved earth stoves is not
more than US$5. The use of these improved stoves in Same is believed to reduce
the demand of fuelwood to less than a half of the original fuel use. It will
therefore have less harvest impact on the adjacent forest!
lady entrepreneur in Bukoba
The project in Bukoba linked with a private entrepreneur from the
adjacent district (Karagwe) to introduce some improved modern earth stoves with
several burners (1-4) and improvised chimney. The lady was invited to the
District through the District authorities.
She was facilitated by the project to train local village technicians,
who are now competent in construction and maintenance and extension on uses and
benefits. These stoves have been
accepted by many community members in our villages in Bukoba due to the
They have proved to reduce fuelwood use from the past 7-10 head-loads
per week per family down to a maximum of 3-4 loads for a family of seven.
The reduced fatigue gives more time to do other development activities
The stove can cook many pots at a time and the reserved heat on the
stove keeps the food or water warmer than the traditional three stone stoves.
The introduced stoves can improvise a chimney which can be direct smoke
out of the kitchen, or into the ceiling storage for food preservation and
More than 2000 households have already adopted the introduced stoves and
the technology is being accepted broadly. The reduced amount of fuelwood use
reduces the illegal and legal need to go into the forest. It reduces the fatigue
used to collect fuelwood and therefore increases the time to perform other
development activities. The reduced collection of green and dry fuelwood leaves
more biomass in the forest and leads to less forest habitat disturbance and
therefore enhanced forest conservation.
Alternative Income Earning Strategies
Most of these activities link up with other resource use issues and may
have already been reflected in energy issues. Most of the communities around the
target project sites are on subsistence lifestyles.
They depend on resources that are available within their reach, they
would be either agricultural products (from subsistence farming) and a strong
base on the forest based resources. The
forest sites adjacent to the communities are the existing naturally available
resources. Most of the project sites have communities that have limited
alternatives and they resort to the forests that they believe have been given to
them to be used by God.
These communities use the resources for their normal livelihood
consumption, and they also sell them for income earning activities.
The project has established partnership with several institutions in
order to enhance alternative sustainable income earning environmental friendly
activities. These include:
Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute and BeeKeeping
The project developed a partnership with Tanzania Wildlife Research
Institute (TAWIRI) through its Beekeeping Research Centre.
This partnership activity is at all three sites and has started with
group formation followed by training in modern bee-keeping and honey production.
Beekeeping has been a traditional practice in all communities but lacked
technical support and input for modern beekeeping.
The project initiated partnership with TWRI and the experts were provided
to work with our project partners at District and village levels. The beekeeping
activity has a high potential to alternative income generation activity
The prevailing market process are considered high at all levels village,
district and region.
Production costs is only high at the initial stages.
Honey has multiple use including medicinal, traditional, food, brewing
and cultural values.
Beekeeping practices in protected forest areas are now in accordance
with the new national forest and beekeeping policies, contrary to the previous
Beekeeping products, especially honey and beeswax, but not royal jelly
and venom, can be processed and utilised locally.
Beewax, honey, venom, and royal jelly have a high export potential
Most beekeeping products are not perishable.
Beekeeping had been practiced traditionally using less productive and
less appropriate honey technologies.
Modern beekeeping is cost effective, can be product focused and
harvesting practices has less destructive risks. Modern beekeeping is cost
This initiative has a great potential to partnership in Joint Forest
Management where organised
beekeepers can be allocated forest sites for this activity. This would develop a
Beekeeping management zone. This
could reduce the risk of inappropriate risks and uses such as uncontrolled
grazing, fires and illegal cutting. Beekeeping
as an alternate income earning activity does increase beneficiary interest to
conservation and therefore contribute towards overall environment conservation.
The project in collaboration with TaWRI have produced a newsletter on
site activities at Same, and will soon produce a Swahili Beekeepers-Biodiversity
This links up with the previously mentioned Alternative Energy
Partnership. The Jatropha plant can
produce fuel oil, that when produced in excess of home needs, could be marketed
to others. The plant can also be
used to produce washing soap. The
oil pressing and the production of soap can be done at the village level and the
market for fuel oil and soap readily exists at all levels. A study on market
within Arusha and neighbouring districts is ongoing. The planting of Jatropha is
going on well. There exists
documentation on successful soap production and fuel oil from Zimbabwe case.
We expect that by the end of the year 2001 we will have our own Tanzania documented successful
Tourism through Dutch SNV at Pare and Monduli.
had initiated a normal cultural tourism support through local initiatives, in
both Same (Pare Mountains) and Monduli (Mto-wa-Mbu and Longido). This Cross Borders Project has established partnerships with
SNV within the two areas. SNV
funding comes to an end in late 2001 and we found it relevant to support the
idea of ecotourism as started by SNV, and to add funding with the vision of a
longer-term biodiversity conservation component.
support is mainly to the information centre initiation, and sharing the baseline
data on site biodiversity that will build on existing general cultural
information. This baseline data
will include amongst other things, local use of indigenous plants from the
documented resource user survey, and knowledge of plant and bird species in the
project will support an ongoing booklet on the South Pare traditional
conservation systems and base it with the Tona Lodge and Kisaka Villa (both near
Chome Forest Reserve in Same District). Cultural tourism has not yet been fully
initiated in Bukoba. Lessons
learnt from Monduli and Same Districts will soon be shared by Bukoba.
Lessons learned Both Uganda and Tanzania:
Various stakeholders may have different interests as opposed to project
interests and these have to be carefully evaluated. A common vision with
partners is therefore necessary to have focus on project objectives and
It is important to closely monitor the implementing partners to make sure
the relationship between Conservation and Development is not lost along the way.
In order to promote project ownership by the local communities, it is
necessary to involve them right at the start of project planning; in the
formulation of village based plans together with the partners who would be
Documentation of all project processes should start at the beginning of
the project. The process is as important as the outputs. Dialogue and discussion
should be maintained with all the key stakeholders during the life of the
Community involvement in project activities needs to be carefully
undertaken by selecting an approach that is acceptable and appropriate for the
socio-cultural group being targeted e.g the Karamoja approach should be through
the cultural set up (use of “Akiriket”) and is different from the Rakai
set-up whose communities are largely cultivators and though could be communally
mobilized, outputs should be expected at household level.
that many of these activities are described in detail under another Discussion
Note on the Development and Use of Alternative Resource use and Income
Discussion Notes Page